Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable TSI management of water and sanitation for all.
Evidence suggests that two-thirds of the world population could be living in water-stressed countries by 2025 if current consumption patterns continue. Water scarcity, poor water quality and inadequate sanitation negatively impact health, food security, and the livelihood choices and educational opportunities for poor families across the world. Drought afflicts some of the world’s poorest countries, worsening levels of hunger and malnutrition. Water withdrawal for irrigation and livestock will increase as global population growth and economic development drive food demand up. In meeting the world’s future fuel and food needs, improved knowledge, research and innovation in more productive and sustainable use of clean water, especially for food and energy, will be paramount.
Access to Affordable, Reliable, Sustainable and Clean Energy
SDG 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and clean energy for all.
Energy is crucial for achieving almost all the Sustainable Development Goals, from its role in the eradication of poverty through advancements in health, education, water supply, agriculture and industrialization, to combating climate change. The proportion of the global population with access to electricity has increased steadily, but there are still over 1 billion people without this valuable service. An approximate 600 million of these people are on the African continent. In 2018, renewable energy accounted for an estimated 18.2% of global total final energy consumption, with modern renewables representing 10.4%. The number of countries with renewable energy targets and support policies increased again in 2017, and several jurisdictions made their existing targets more ambitious. Renewable energy accounted for about 68% of the total amount committed to new power-generating capacity in 2017. However, this growth pattern that mostly reflects the situation in the Eastern Asia region, is lagging on the African continent.
The technologies making the largest contribution have been hydropower, wind and solar energy — all of them having substantial potential for development in Africa.
SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
Climate change is now affecting every country on every continent. It is o disrupting national economies and affecting lives, costing people, communities and countries dearly. People are experiencing the significant impacts of climate change, which include changing weather patterns, rising sea levels and more extreme weather events. The greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are driving climate change and continue to rise. The poorest people are most affected by climate change. Temperature rises, changing rainfall patterns and extreme weather events pose a real threat to global food production.